Aussie Educator

Calendars & Time

Due to current circumstances, this page has been updated but will no longer be added to or maintained until further notice.

calendar [n.]

[pl. calendars] 1. a chart or series of pages showing the days, weeks, and months of a particular year, or giving particular seasonal information. 2. a list of days or events of a specified kind. 3. a book in which to note daily appointments
- ORIGIN Middle English : from Old French ‘calendier’, from Latin kalendarium ‘account book’, from kalendae [see calends]
Oxford Dictionaries

We all use calendars for a wide range of reasons. Where did they come from and why were they created ? Do they use the same calendar all around the world ? Are we still using the same calendar they used centuries ago ? Did other cultures use different calendars ? If they have changed, why have they changed ? …

These questions and more will find answers through the links below. As well, you will find ways to create calendars, discover information about special features such as solstices and equinoxes and convert dates between different calendars.

Calendars provide the big picture in terms of how we arrange time, but we also need to understand time each day, how we measure it, why time zones are important and how some features, such as daylight savings, have come into existence. Do we measure time in the same way as in the past ? If not, why has this changed ?

Find information about time, how we measure it, how this has changed, what tools we use and more by using the links provided.


Calendar Creators & Printers

  • New ! Calendar Magic
    ‘Calendar Magic is an easy-to-use Freeware Windows based program that is entertaining, informative, educational, and of equal applicability in the home and in the office’. Information more than a creator.
  • Canva Free Online Calendar Maker
    ‘With Canva’s collection of calendar templates coupled with our easy editing tools, you’ll have a perfectly designed, unique calendar in no time’.
  • Custom Calendar Maker
    ‘With this online web app you can make your own custom calendars, personalise it with your photos and download it as a Pdf file for easy printing. It’s free !’
  • Make a Customised Calendar
    From Online calendar creator that allows you a wide range of options in terms of month/months/year, set out, holiday inclusions [covers Australia] and more. In addition, there are related calendar resources available from the site.
  • My Free Calendar Maker
    ‘Allows you to generate and print free calendars for use around your home, office, or just about anywhere’.

Calendar Templates

  • New ! Blank Calendar [2018]
    ‘Printout blank calendars and year-round planners all completely Free. Use a blank calendar to plan ahead’. Do these for 2016.
  • Excel Calendar Template
    ‘This Free template allows you to create a monthly calendar by simply choosing a year and month. You can also choose a colour scheme for your calendar using simple form controls’.
  • Free Printable Calendar Templates
    ‘We provide professional-looking printable calendars in a matter of moments. Every download is a perfectly formatted Microsoft Word® document that contains the finished calendar - you’ll never need to fill the dates in yourself’.
  • Perpetual Calendars in Excel
    ‘Our One Month and One Year perpetual calendars are listed below. These Excel file calendars do not use macros and can be used in OpenOffice or other Excel compatible software’.
  • My Free Calendar Maker
    Online calendar creator using a PDF format. Multiple options.
  • TKexe Kalender
    ‘TKexe Kalender enables you to create printable calendar pages from your personal photos or designs. You can add up to 20 images to each monthly display and customise the page layout via drag and drop of elements. The design can be applied individually to each page or the entire year. Other features include support for personal events, public holidays [10 countries], image effects, gradients and more’. Home page is in German, but program will run in English.
  • UK’s Kalender
    ‘UK’s Kalender is a Windows program intended to remind you of upcoming events and “to dos”. There are several views for your dates that are organised similar to a calendar sheet. Dates and appointments can be entered into the calendar via an input form. You can enter a forewarn time, so as long as UK’s Kalender is running in the background you’ll be reminded of your dates as soon as the forewarn time is reached. Independent from the calendar function there is also a to do list where you can enter tasks with a deadline and a forewarn time’.

General Sites

  • Updated ! 10 000-Year Calendar !
    ‘With this calendar you can view a month or year calendar for any year 1 to 10 000 A.D. All leap years and calendar changes are accounted for’. Clear instructions provided.
  • Calendar
    Calendar systems, solar calendars, other types, uses, current calendars, Gregorian calendar, Physical calendars, calendars in computing, list of calendars, references, further links. Wikipedia.
  • Calendar Converter
    ‘This page allows you to interconvert dates in a variety of calendars, both civil and computer-related. All calculations are done in JavaScript executed in your own browser; complete source code is embedded in or linked to this page, and you’re free to download these files to your own computer and use them even when not connected to the Internet’.
  • Calendars and Their History
    Quite a lengthy presentation from an introduction through to the Julian calendar.
  • Calendar Zone, The
    all kinds of calendars, Calzone recipes, calendar quotes and poetry.
  • Updated ! Calendar, a History
    Origin of calendars, the Western calendar, Gregorian/Julian/Roman calendars and more.
  • Updated ! Calendar Studies - Hermetic Systems
    Has a special emphasis on lunar and lunar related calendars, information on ISO dating, date converter, Julian and Gregorian calendars and more.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars
    ‘This document is available in three formats : as a set of web pages, as a single text file [or] as a PDF file’.
  • Rosetta Calendar
    ‘Rosetta Calendar is named after the Rosetta Stone, an ancient tablet found in Egypt. It allowed scholars to decipher hieroglyphics, just as the Rosetta Calendar displays the same date in multiple calendar systems’.
  • The Time Now
    ‘The Time Now provides accurate synchronised time and accurate time services in Current local time, Daylight saving time, Time Zone, Currency, Weather and several other areas.’. You can also print year calendar templates for a number of years. WCAG 2.0 compatible.
  • Time and Date Calendars
    Create calendars for almost any year. Varying styles.

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Summer Solstice

Winter Solstice

  • Updated ! Winter Solstice
    The beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and summer in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Winter Solstice Celebrations
    Christianity, Judaism, Neopaganism, etc.. Multiple topics are covered including links to a wide range of websites on this topic covering celebrations, history and more.

Special Calendars & Formats

  • Calendars
    From Scienceworld. Covers multiple calendar systems and has other links to related calendar information.
  • Calendars through the Ages
    [Calendars from the Sky]
    ‘Explore the fascinating history of the human endeavour to organise our lives in accordance with the sun and stars’. Sections on calendars, timelines and more.

Chinese Calendars

  • Chinese Calendar
    Information on early history, Taichu calendar, true sun & moon, calendar rules, year markings, hours of the day, twelve animals, solar term, holidays, relevance today, influence on others, references and links to further information. Wikipedia.
  • Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar
    Information that goes beyond the mathematical aspect including characters, Chinese New Year dates, sexagesimal cycle, software Java Applets, articles, papers and student projects.

Gregorian Calendars

Modified from the Julian calendar and forming the basis of our present calendar. Not universally accepted when introduced.

  • Gregorian Calendar
    Lunar aspects, Gregorian reform, adoption information, differences to the Julian calendar, beginning of the year, dual dating, proleptic Gregorian calendar, months of the year, the week, its accuracy, numerical facts, references, links to further specific information. Wikipedia.
  • Gregorian Calendar [Answers]
    Compiled information from a range of sources, including the above site.
  • History of Our Calendar
    Poses questions and then provides answers that explain some of anomalies that seem to exist in our calendar.
  • Updated ! The Curious History of the Gregorian Calendar
    Text articles, with embedded links, from Infoplease.

Julian Calendars

Initial development of the Roman calendar which was, in turn, modified to become the Gregorian calendar forming the basis of today’s calendar.

  • Julian Calendar
    Covers motivation for development, the reform, leap year error, month names and lengths, year numbering, New Year’s Day, transition to the Gregorian calendar, notes and links to other information. Wikipedia.
  • New ! The Julian Calendar
    Text-based article covering a range of information.
  • The Roman Calendar
    Follows development of the Roman calendar through to the Julian and Gregorian follow-ons.
  • Updated ! The Julian and Gregorian Calendars
    Extensive information presented in 8 sections and covering the Julian calendar and its transition to the Gregorian.

Lunar Calendars

  • Updated ! Lunar Calendar [1]
    Displays moon phases for each month of the year.
  • Lunar Calendar [2]
    Covers lunisolar calendars, start and length of the lunar month, the Old English 13-month lunar year, references and links to other information. Wikipedia.
  • Paula Burch’s Lunisolar Calendar
    A completely different approach and one which provides you with a range of options to try lunisolar style calendars. It is North American in orientation but still interesting to check just because it is different.
  • Universal Lunar Calendar
    Calendars for different cities, months and years plus a wealth of other information in tabbed sections.

Other Specific Calendars

  • Aztec Calendar
    Clear description including graphical presentation. Date calculator [get your Aztec name] and a very clear introduction to the calendar.
  • Babylonian Calendar The
    First inclusion in a group of calendars including Jewish, Iranian, Lunisolar and more. Provides textual information and several tables of ideograms.
  • Islamic Calendar
    ‘The Islamic calendar (or Hijri calendar) is a lunar calendar. It contains 12 months that are based on the motion of the moon, and because 12 lunar months is 12 x 29.53=354.36 days, the Islamic calendar is consistently shorter [11 Days] than a solar year’. Other information can also be found at the Islamic calendar - Wikipedia.
  • Kaluach - Online Hebrew Calendar
    Calendar, Jewish holidays, specific times and more.
  • The Mayan Calendar
    Considered to be central to the whole Mayan way of life, this site provides information about the calendar and a study of Mayan civilisation as well. ‘The Mayan Calendar’s ancestral knowledge guided the Maya’s existence from the moment of their birth and there was little that escaped its influence’.

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Clocks, Watches, Sundials, …

  • A Walk Through Time
    Ancient time keeping, clocks through the ages, world time scales and zones, bibliography, a revolution in timekeeping and time in the atomic age.
  • New ! A History of Clocks
    Find out about clocks and watches - sundials, water clocks and the variety of modern clocks.
  • New ! Horology - The Index [Clock Watch and Time Museums]
    ‘Horology is the Science of Time, Timekeepers and Timekeeping’. Internet links to Horological Museums.
  • Quartz Clocks and Watches
    Actually covers how both ordinary and quartz types work. You might also like to view a short video on How a quartz watch works.
  • Speaking Clock
    Multilingual shareware. Could be used with people having visual difficulty or with younger children.
  • Sundial Links
    Before clocks there were sundials and other time measuring devices. This site provides links to information about sundials including construction and history.

Other Sites

  • Current Time
    Gives access to current time wherever you are, alarm clock, timer, stopwatch and countdown.
  • Exploring Time
    Linked to a 2 hour television presentation. Several sections are still useful including the Classroom, Playground and Video Archive areas.
  • Keeping Time
    Article from ABC Science [Australia]. Covers from the past to the future.
  • Royal Observatory Greenwich
    The place in the world where time is measured from and what occurs there. Also check this site.
  • Seven Things You Need to Know About Time
    ‘Seven articles about the nature of time and the way humans relate to it’.
  • Time
    Temporal measurement, definitions & standards, religion, philosophy, physical definition, Time & The Big Bang, time travel, judgement of time, newsgroup, further reading, links, more. Wikipedia.
  • New ! The True Nature of Time
    Created by the Discovery Channel. Nearly an hour long. Links to other time-related videos on the right.
  • Time and Date
    Covers calendars and time. Time section has the world clock, time zones and a personal clock while the calendar section has a calendar generator, calendar customiser, duration between dates, etc.. There is also a “countdown” section.

Specific Time Information

Daylight Saving

  • Earth Viewer
    Find regions of the world in night or day in real time.
  • Updated ! How Time Works
    ‘Time is something that most of us take for granted. Have you ever thought about why, for example, there are 12 months in a year ? Why are there 30 days in September ? … In this article, we’ll help to clarify the subject of time’.
  • On the Units of Time
    In 3 parts. The first looks at seconds to days, the second on The Months and Weeks, while the third covers The Year.

Time Zones & World Time Variation

  • The Time Now
    ‘Find out what the current local time is, in more than a hundred thousand cities around the world, as well as the UTC/GMT offset, the time zone full name and abbreviation’, more.
  • Time Ticker
    Provides times for cities and time zones around the world.
  • Time Zone Converter
    Find the relevant time zone that matches your time here.
  • World Clock, The
    Find time zones around the world, times in cities, set up your own personal world clock and link to calendars.
  • World Clock - Time Zones and Weather
    ‘The time in main Cities around the world. Click on the city name to get more information’. Also has weather for selected cities.
  • Updated ! World Time Server
    By selecting a city and/or country find the time anywhere in the world.

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