Convicts & Colonies
Dealing with a glut of convicts was the primary reason for the initial settlement, being seen as a way to ease prison pressures and replace previous transportation to other places such as the United States. Life for convicts was not easy before, during or after their transportation to one of the Australian colonies. In the end it did provide opportunities for those prepared to take them. Note that not all colonies began life as convict settlements. Some were based on commercial ventures. Details are listed below.
While convict ancestry was once considered something to be hidden, it is now often regarded as something about which to be proud.
This page looks at convict life both before coming to Australia and once they arrived. It includes a section on Irish convicts. There is also information on the establishment of the main colonies, the majority of which had convicts at some point during their early years.
Convict Life Before Australia
Prison hulks, gaols, trial information, records held in the British Isles.
- Convict Transportation Inquiry
‘A London newspaper editor’s account of England’s Inquiry into the system of Transportation’. Read the site’s qualifier statement regarding accuracy.
- Crime, Justice & Punishment
‘Historical Background to the Proceedings of the Old Bailey’. [See below] Includes information policing, types of crime, trial procedures, verdicts, punishments, glossary, bibliography.
- Prison Hulks on the River Thames
Sections from The English penal system and transportation to the Colonies to Penal reform and the end of the hulks.
for Convicts and Prisoners
National Archives, UK. ‘The following document series are those which are most likely to prove useful in the study or tracing of individual convicts and prisoners’. Vast information. Fee-based.
- Transportation to Australia 1787-1868
Where this material can be found in the National Archives, UK. Fee-based.
- The Proceedings of the Old Bailey [London 1674 to 1834]
‘Fully searchable online edition of the largest body of texts detailing the lives of non-elite people ever published, containing accounts of over 100 000 criminal trials held at London’s central criminal court’.
- Anti-Transportation Movement
Article reproduced in The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser [NSW : 1843 - 1893]. This was only one of the parts of this movement in the middle of the 19th century. Includes a clear copy as well as the facsimile. For links to other newspaper articles from around the colonies on the same topic, see the Search results for ‘anti-transportation movement’ at Trove [NLA].
- A Short History of Convict Australia
Pilot Guide. Who they were, transportation, convict life, pardon & punishment, escapes.
- Australia Bound : Convict Voyaging,
‘Strikingly little scholarly attention has been paid either to the organisation of the ships prior to departure or to convict and other experiences of the voyages. This research project seeks to begin to fill that gap : its aim is to write an experiential history of convict voyaging’. Download a PDF Copy here.
- Australian Convict
Well annotated information and links to sites from most states in Australia.
- Convict Creations
What stems from our convict heritage.
- Convict Crimes
Article. Discusses these, includes a listing of crimes committed.
- Convictism in Australia
Reasons for transportation, transport to various states, cessation of transportation, legacy of the convict era, famous convicts, references, links. Wikipedia.
Images, information, bibliography, links.
- Convict System, The
State Library of NSW. Covers aspects of convict life. Links take you to further information.
- Convict Records
‘ConvictRecords.com.au allows you to search the British Convict transportation register for convicts transported to Australia between 1787-1867. Information available includes name of convict, known aliases, place convicted, port of departure, date of departure, port of arrival, and the source of the data’.
- Convicts Australia
Convict information for all states. Specific sections, e.g. Convict Ticket of Leave Regulations.
- Convicts to Australia
Originally a genealogical site.Contains direct information and annotated links in directories. Convicts, transportation, convict life.
- Convict Transportation
[State Library of Queensland]. ‘The British Convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database has been compiled from the British Home Office [HO] records which are available on microfilm. You can find details for over 123 000 of the estimated 160 000 convicts transported to Australia in the 18th and 19th centuries - names, term of years, transport ships and more’.
- Descriptions of Convict Life
A series of vignettes covering a range of aspects of convict life.
- Indexes to Convict Records NSW
Covers Certificates of Freedom, Exiles, Pardons, Tickets of Leave, more. Search capability provided.
Information, especially from the Irish Archives concerning convicts, allied free settlers, the transportation system.
- Free Settlers’
‘This small series, spanning the years 1828 to 1848, contains information on relatives of transported convicts who were emigrated to join their convict relative at the expense of government’. PDF available.
Introductory page, links, more.
- Irish Convicts to NSW 1791-1834
‘Details of Irish convicts transported to New South Wales’ during this period. Links to other sites and information.
- Getting Started on Researching
Advice from the State Library of NSW. Most applicable in NSW.
- Sources in the National
For research into the transportation of Irish convicts to Australia [1791-1853] by Rena Lohan. Information, links to further material, PDF version of the article.
‘Lags’ and ‘Lashes’
The Vocabulary of Convict Australia, 1788-1850. ‘Describes the evolution of convict terminology, as revealed through books in the [National] Library’s Collection’. Archived but still available.
Horrors of Convict Life
British Radical Visions of the Australian Penal Colonies. Effects of penal colonies on convicts. Includes information from John Frost, who had spent time in Van Diemen’s Land as a convict.
- The Rule of Law in A Penal Colony
Law and Power in Early New South Wales. Selections from the book of this title, by David Neal [Cambridge University Press, 1991]. Google books.
In Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Britain : Penal Power, Liberty, and the State. Article originally in Law & Society Review. Get a PDF copy [206K] here.
- Western Australian Convicts
How many, why the change in attitude, how used.
Covering the early years of each of the colony settlements. Includes documentation and information on influential people.
New South Wales
- An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales
Volume 1, David Collins. Download in several formats. The Second Volume is found here.
Captain Arthur Phillip
- Arthur Phillip
First Fleet Commander, First Governor. A biography and detail of his time as Governor. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Governor Phillip’s Instructions 25 April
General information, the transcript in PDF and RTF formats.
- The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay
Arthur Phillip. Free ebook of 23 chapters, several appendices. Extends beyond the voyage, to the land they arrived at. ‘Includes the Journals of Lieutenants Shortland, Watts, Ball and Captain Marshall, with an account of their new discoveries’.
- Castle Hill Convict Rebellion
The uprising, Battle of Vinegar Hill, aftermath, references. Wikipedia.
- Cobb & Co Heritage Trail
‘Witness the relics of these long gone coaching days - many recognisable, some mere shadows of their former selves’. Education kit. Gallery, links, video.
- Early Colonial
Botany Bay as a Penal Colony. Article looking at the decision to choose Botany Bay for a penal colony.
- First Fleet Online
‘Information about the convicts who were transported to Australia in 1787’. Database of all convicts, source information, diary extracts, stories, letters, investigation suggestions, references, links to specific topics. Their Stories and Rations Timeline are examples of the content.
State Records Authority of New South Wales. Censuses, convict information, Colonial Secretary Papers, Court & Police Records, shipping records, land records, more. Printed copies are Fee-based.
- John Thomas Bigge
English judge, Royal Commissioner. The Bigge Inquiry, his death, links, references. Wikipedia. Lengthy biography in the Australian Dictionary of Biography Online.
- Lachlan Macquarie
A pivotal Governor. Biography, his time in the colony, what he did, links to people such as Marsden, Simeon Lord, Dr Redfern and others including Bigge, who reported on the affairs of the colony. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Norfolk Island - The First Settlement
Establishment of a colony on Norfolk Island. The second settlement is covered through Hell of the Pacific. Norfolk Island became a Secondary Punishment Colony along with Newcastle, Port Macquarie, Moreton Bay and Van Diemen’s Land [Tasmania].
Religion, Church & Missions in Australia
The Early Years. Men of the cloth, individuals such as Johnson, Marsden and Macquarie, places of worship, more, using text and images over several linked pages. State Library of NSW.
- Rum Rebellion
Bligh, arrival in Sydney, enmity with Macarthur, overthrow, aftermath, causes, references. Wikipedia.
- Captain Patrick Logan
‘Regarded by many historians as the true founder of Queensland’, by others as brutal Commandant of the Penal Colony until his death in 1830. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Queensland Government. Covers the period 1838 on.
Queensland Government. Several sections including Settlement and Early Development.
- History of Brisbane
Early sections cover European exploration, The Penal Colony, free settlement, development in the early years. Wikipedia.
- Letters Patent Erecting Colony of Queensland
6 June 1859, [UK]. Full transcript [PDF or RTF], why it is important, how it happened, what it looks like.
Bay Convict Settlement
Information, links from the Queensland State Archives. A related site can be found at History of Moreton Bay Convict Settlement and Penal Colony
- Sir Thomas Makdougall
NSW Governor after whom the city and the river were named and who arranged the establishment of the colony. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Colonel William Light
Surveyor-General in the early colony.
- Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Immigration promoter and the man behind the push to settle South Australia as a free settlement. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Events and Statistics
South Australian History 1834-1857. ‘The period from settlement of the Colony to the commencement of responsible Government’. Point form, by years.
- German Settlers in South Australia
The first arrived in 1836. German settlers spread across the state but are found in larger groups in areas such as the Barossa.
- History of Adelaide
Aboriginal Settlement, early European interest, settlement, the first years, later developments. Wikipedia.
- Settling South Australia
‘Settlement of the Colony of South Australia in 1836 was the result of a vision for a self-supporting free colony’.
- Sir John Hindmarsh
First Governor. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- South Australian Company
Information about the company that developed the settlement in South Australia. Links to main people involved. Wikipedia.
- South Australian History
Time sections beginning with Pre 1836. Each contains information, links. Access an alphabetical listing of places and people important in South Australia’s development.
- South Australian History Timeline
Course of Settlement
Atlas of South Australia.The first in a series of pages on the settlement and development of South Australia. Based on topics and years.
- Black War
‘A period of conflict between the British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines in Van Diemen’s Land [now Tasmania] in the early years of the 19th century’. References, literary references. Wikipedia.
- Constitution Act 1855 [Tas]
Full transcript [PDF or RTF], why it is important, how it happened, what it looks like.
- Convicts on the West
Coast of Tasmania
‘The use of the West Coast as an outpost to house convicts in isolated penal settlements occurred in the era 1822-1833, and 1846-1847’. Macquarie Harbour. Wikipedia. Further information on the Macquarie Harbour Penal Station can be found here. Wikipedia.
- David Collins
Deputy Judge Advocate NSW and Lieutenant-Governor Tas.. Biography, information about his role in NSW and the setting up of the colony in Van Diemen’s Land. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- George Augustus Robinson
Protector of Aboriginals. Biography, information on his role, actions, relationship with Arthur. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- History of Tasmania
Timeline in sections, links. Sections for Indigenous people, pre 1800, 1800-1809, 1810-1819, 1820-1829, 1830-1839, 1840-1849, 1850-1859 and 1860-1869. Wikipedia.
- Index to Early Land Grants In
Van Diemen’s Land to 1824
‘A list of land grants in Van Diemen’s Land up until about 1824’. Two major sources.
- Order in Council
Separating Van Diemen’s Land From New South Wales. Downloadable file.
- Sir George Arthur
Lieutenant-Governor. Biography, information on his time in Tasmania. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- The Black Line
Article, links. The attempt to corral all Aborigines in Tasmania. Wikipedia.
Early life, final years & legacy, cultural references, references, links. Wikipedia. Check the entry for Trugernanner [Truganini], Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Australian Constitutions Act 1850 [UK]
Original document. Significance, history, why it happened. The effect on several state including Victoria. Transcripts in PDF and RTF formats. View the actual document online.
- Edward Henty
Farmer, grazier, politician, settler. The settlement at Portland. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Foundation of Melbourne
Exploration, settlement, Batman’s Treaty, Tasmanian settlement, establishment of Melbourne, the true founder. Wikipedia.
- History of Melbourne
Extends beyond the colonial period. There is a substantial section on the Early Years, with embedded links. Wikipedia.
- History of Melbourne
Early yearsas well as later developments.
- John Batman
Grazier, squatter, purchaser, pioneer of Melbourne. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- John Helder Wedge
Explorer, grazier, public servant, politician, surveyor during the early years of Melbourne. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- John Pascoe Fawkner
Landowner, politician, prisoner, publican, newspaper owner. Early Port Phillip settler. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
From the City of Melbourne.
- Port Phillip, Victoria
Summary of the early establishment, links to related information, maps, images.
- Timeline of Melbourne History
Covering to the present, but quite a listing for the colonial period. Wikipedia.
- William Buckley
Convict, escapee, “wild white man”, indigenous culture recorder, public servant. Lived with the Aborigines in the Port Phillip district after escaping as a convict. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Article with links to further information.
Information about James [sic] Buckley who lived for thirty years among the Wallawarro or Watourong tribes at Geelong Port Phillip. Also check the links in the menu on the left for further information.
- Colonial Office
Circular, 5 December 1828
Circular describing the intention to establish a free colony on the west coast of Australia. Wikipedia.
Colonial Secretary’s Office Records
‘The Colonial Secretary’s Office records represent one of the most diverse and comprehensive historical resources available for the early years of the Swan River Colony. These records comprise of inward correspondence from both settlers and officials to the Colonial Secretary’s Office, as well as the relevant outward correspondence, and cover the period 1828-1973’.
‘Search the Convict Database to discover the men who were transported to the Swan River Colony, Western Australia from 1850 to 1868’. Alphabetical listing by surname.
- Convict Era of Western
Convicts at King Georges Sound, Free Settlement period, agitation for convicts, the convict era, end to transportation, later years, references, links. Wikipedia.
- Convict Records
State Records Office. Information, embedded links to aspects such as downloadable indexes and contact details for those seeking further information.
- History of Perth, Western
Aboriginal history, early European exploration, Swan River Colony, the early years, Convicts, sections on the later nineteenth century, the twentieth century. Wikipedia.
- Land Grants in the Swan River
Land grants, improvement conditions, other land grants, changes to conditions, effects on the indigenous people. Wikipedia.
- Sir James Stirling
Founder of Western Australia. Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Swan River Colony
European exploration, background to the settlement, settlement events, references, links. Wikipedia.
- The Centre for WA History
Linked to the University of Western Australia. Fee-based to access full articles. This page opens to “Building a Colony : The Convict Legacy” . Other links include Historical Traces  and Convictism in Western Australia .
- The Convict Era
Article on the convict period in Western Australia, after it had been established as a free colony. Check a link to a Convict Profile, showing crime, ages, occupations, more.
- Western Australia Documents
Access documents. Each has a transcript in PDF or RTF formats. Range from “Instructions to the Admiralty to take formal possession of the western portion of the continent 5 November 1828 [UK]” to a 1978 document. The majority are from the early colonial period.