AUSSIE EDUCATOR

Special Days & Public Holidays

Some public holidays are celebrated in all states & territories, though not necessarily on the same day e.g. Labour Day]. Some apply in individual states or territories [e.g. Canberra Day]. Some only apply to particular areas within a state or territory [e.g Alice Springs Show Day]. All are found through links in the Public Holidays section below.

There are also special days celebrated in Australia from Australia Day through to the ‘the race that stops a nation’, the Melbourne Cup.

Find information about nominated international days. Also included are links to pages on this site for both Easter and Christmas.

Use this Calendar link for other days celebrated in Australia and this Multifaith Calendar link for religious celebrations.

AUSTRALIAN PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

STATE PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

  • Daylight Saving and Public Holidays in the ACT
    Provides dates, a PDF download of these and a link to ACT Government School Term Dates. The site has several previous years data, plus dates for 2 years ahead.
  • Updated ! Public Holidays, NSW
    Main data covers 3 years including the current one [2022-2024]. Multiple links to : previous dates [currently back to 2013]; Local Public Holidays in NSW; Local Event Days in NSW; Retail shop and bank trading restrictions; iCalendar; and Information for other states. You can also print several of these.
  • Public Holidays, NT
    NT Public Holidays; Substitute and additional public holidays; Regional Holidays. Provides a link to School term and holiday dates in NT. Dates for multiple years [currently 3 years up to and including 2023].
  • Public Holidays, Queensland
    Links to Public Holidays; School Holidays; Special holiday dates; and Show holiday dates. Public holiday dates are listed for the previous 9 years.
  • Public Holidays, SA
    Public Holiday dates for one previous, the current and the next 2 years. Multiple downloads covering specific groups of years. Information re Sundays; Part-day public holidays; Bank holidays; Impact on shop trading hours; Impact when holidays fall on Saturday or Sunday, plus more.
  • Public Holidays in Tasmania
    Listings cover a 3 year period. Also includes : Statewide public holidays [all of Tasmania]; Substitute holidays; Regional holidays [parts of Tasmania]; Shop trading; School term dates; Daylight saving; and Anzac Day trading.
  • Updated ! Public Holiday Dates, Victoria
    ‘A listing of public holidays in Victoria - 2022-2025; Operating on a Public Holiday; Victorian non-metropolitan public holidays; Public holidays shown in languages other than English; Operating on a restricted trading day; while you can Visit the Victorian Government website to download the Victorian public holiday dates [iCAL] for use in your calendar. Some years may not be available for download. There are also links to other sources for Victoria which relate to this area.
  • Updated ! Public Holidays, WA
    Public Holiday dates for 2022-2024. Also provides Easter Sunday public holiday information, Regional WA public holiday dates, Previous years regional WA public holiday dates and Previous years public holiday dates. Links are provided to a range of related information, e.g. School term and school holiday dates, while there is even a link to information about Public holiday pay and entitlements.

PORTALS

  • New ! 2023 Public Holidays - Fair Work Ombudsman
    ‘This is the list of 2023 public holidays for each state and territory in Australia. Public holidays can be different depending on the state or territory you’re in. Find what the public holidays are in your state or territory by selecting from the list below’. Compiled by the Fair Work Ombudsman. Links also go to each state/territory for further information and also to information regarding work conditions on public holidays.
  • New ! 2023 Public Holidays in Australia
    Calendar-Australia. ‘The overview contains all common holidays and observances for Australia in 2023. Besides the official national and local public holidays, other holidays and observances [like Mother’s Day, Valentine’s Day, etc.] are included as well’. Use the buttons at the top of the calendar to go backwards or forwards by year.
  • Australian Holidays
    Select the year and country [Australia] then click on Show Holidays. Several holidays have links to further information. Other options available from the top menu.
  • Australian Public Holidays
    ‘Choose your state in the list [below], or scroll down for a national list of all public holidays’. Provides 5 years of dates for each special day going forward [plus 4 previous years]. Use links provided for Popular Holidays and Observances.
  • New ! Australian Public Holidays 2022, 2023 and 2024
    ‘The following tables show all 2022, 2023 and 2024 public holidays in Australia. These dates are subject to change as per state government department announcement. We will do our best to make sure the information provided here is up to date’. The right hand column in the details of each indicate whether it is a National, state or territory public holiday.
  • New ! Australian Public Holidays - Tourism Australia
    Holidays are listed in groups as National or individual states and territories and cover both 2022 and 2023. Some inclusions shave additional information regarding smaller area celebrations, part-day holidays or other factors.
  • New ! Holidays and Observances in Australia in 2023
    Provides listing with date, Weekday, Holiday name, Holiday type and Details [where it is observed if only in one state/territory]. Select from a number of holiday listings, Years [2000-2030], even specific months. Links to Other calendars plus several related links including generating your own copy of the calendar.
  • Updated ! Our Community Calendar
    ‘The Our Community calendar is used only for nationally significant events’. It provides : the event; information about it; phone; email; website; indication if date is still to be confirmed. Covers everything from Schools Tree Day to Pink Ribbon Day and National Kidsafe Day from November 2022 on.
  • New ! Public Holidays
    From australia.gov.au. Information is provided via each state listing. ‘Our National Public Holidays are New Year’s Day, Australia Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Anzac Day, Christmas Day and Boxing Day. All other public holidays such as Queen’s [now King’s] Birthday and Labour Day are individually declared by the state and territory governments. You can also New !download the public holiday dataset’.
  • Updated ! Public Holidays Dates Machine Readable Dataset [Australia]
    ‘The data format has been updated to align with a tidy data style [http://vita.had.co.nz/papers/tidy-data.html. The data in this dataset is manually collected and combined in a csv format from a range of state and territory portals’. There is a range of data from a number of years.

Top of Page

AUSTRALIAN SPECIAL DAYS

ANZAC DAY

  • The history of Anzac Day, celebrations, programs, Turkish viewpoint and other information are found at the Anzac Day page on this site.

AUSTRALIA DAY

  • New !Where did Australia Day come from ? [ABC]
    ‘Do you remember the day Australia Day became a public holiday ?’. A series of points covering major steps along the way and what people may have thought about the day itself.

OTHER SPECIAL DAYS

  • Updated ! Birdsville Races
    Go into the desert, celebrate and see horse racing. A social occasion which draws a surprisingly large audience. ‘Funds are raised in aid of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. The population is swelled from about 100 to around 7 000 people for the two-day event’.
  • Canberra Day
    Provides facts and quotes, a brief history, top events and details of a wide range of things to do and enjoy.
  • Clean Up Australia
    Not a holiday, but ‘cleaning up’ Australia so it is a better place to be. Now exported to other countries. Schools have a special Clean Up Day as well.
  • New ! King’s Birthday
    Dates are given for 2023, 2024, 2025 and 2026. Held on the second Monday in June in all states bar Western Australia [4th Monday in September] and Queensland [1st Monday in October]. Additional information related to the day is also provided.
  • Updated ! Labour Day
    ‘Labour Day, also known as Eight Hours Day in Tasmania and May Day in the Northern Territory, commemorates the granting of the eight-hour working day for Australians’.Check calendars for actual dates. Dates for current year, the next year [for all states and territories], plus a list of dates for other years.
  • Updated ! Melbourne Cup
    ‘Melbourne Cup Day is Australia’s best known horse racing event held on the first Tuesday of November every year. It is an annual public holiday in the state of Victoria. This event is popularly dubbed as “the race that stops the nation”’. History and other information about the ‘Cup’. More information can be found at New !this site, with dates out to 2036.
  • National Tree Day
    ‘National Tree Day started in 1996 and has grown into Australia’s largest community tree-planting and nature care event. It’s a call to action for all Australians to get their hands dirty and give back to the community’.
  • Proclamation Day
    A small page about Proclamation Day in South Australia and a brief comment about the day in Western Australia. Wikipedia.
  • Proclamation Day [South Australia]
    Covers dates till 2023. There is also information relating to the day, its history and more.
  • Remembrance Day
    Held to commemorate the date of the end of The Great War [World War 1].
  • Western Australia [Foundation] Day
    Now Western Australia Day. A wide range of information including a Primary School Teacher’s Education Toolkit.

Top of Page

WORLD SPECIAL DAYS

APRIL FOOL’S DAY

  • Updated ! April Fool’s Day – The History of the Fools
    ‘April Fools’ Day, also called All Fools’ Day, is celebrated every April 1st. While it is not officially recognised as a holiday, many celebrate by pranking, or pulling practical jokes on their colleagues, or by organising larger-scale hoaxes’.
  • Updated ! April Fool’s Day [2]
    ‘This is a day for tricks, pranks and jokes. April Fool’s Pranks; Why is All Fool’s Day on April 1 ?; Biblical theories; April Fool’s Day in History; The Origin of “Fool’s Errands”’ and more.
  • April Fool’s Day [All Fools’ Day]
    ‘Origins; Long-standing customs; Pranks; Comparable prank days; Reception; In popular culture; References; Further reading; Embedded links’. Wikipedia.
  • April Fool’s Day Origins
    Short article with several references. ‘How the custom of pranking on April 1 came about remains shrouded in mystery’.
  • The Origin of April Fool’s Day
    Examples and history from the Museum of Hoaxes. Also try their page on The Top 100 April Fool’s Day Hoaxes of All Time for some fascinating examples of these [including at least one Australian hoax].

BASTILLE DAY

CHINESE NEW YEAR

  • New ! Chinese Lantern Festival 2023
    ‘On the 15th day of the first lunar month, two weeks after Chinese New Year, another important traditional Chinese festival, the Chinese Lantern Festival or Yuan Xiao Jie or Yuanxiao Festival [元宵节], is celebrated. It marks the first full moon of the new lunar year and the end of the Chinese New Year [Spring Festival] period. Chinese Lantern Festival will be celebrated on February 5th in 2023’.
  • Chinese New Year
    ‘Overview; History; Calendar; Crafts; Traditions; Food; Greetings; Activities’ and dates [1930-2030].
  • Updated ! Chinese New Year [2023]
    What is it and how is it celebrated ?. Includes ‘When Is Chinese New Year ?; Chinese New Year Animal; Chinese New Year Origin and Myth; Traditions and Celebrations; Chinese New Year Food; Superstitions and Taboos; and Chinese New Year Greetings’. Also offers Dates; and Animal Signs.
  • Chinese New Year in Australia
    ‘Many Australians celebrate Lunar New Year, also known as the Spring Festival or Chinese New Year. It marks the first day of the New Year in the Chinese calendar. What do people do ?; Public Life; Background; Symbols; Dates for multiple years’; more. You can find details here about the Chinese New Year Sydney, including 2023 Festival Dates, Chinese New Year Calendar & Animal [Rabbit].
  • Send a Chinese New Year ePostcard
    Multiple choices; add your own thoughts; pre-send to arrive on the day; other options.

CHRISTMAS

  • For all information about Christmas, visit the separate Christmas page on this site.

EASTER

  • For all information about Easter, visit the separate Easter page on this site.

“FAMILY” DAYS

  • Father’s Day eCards
    Multiple choices; add your own thoughts; pre-send to arrive on the day; other options.
  • Father’s Day - Wikipedia
    ‘History; Dates; African traditions; Asian traditions; European traditions; North American traditions; Oceanian traditions [includes Australia]; South American traditions; References; Links’.
  • Updated ! Father’s Day in Australia
    ‘Is Father’s Day a Public Holiday ?; What Do People Do ?; Background; Symbols; About Father’s Day in other countries; Dates from 2017-2027’.
  • Mother’s Day eCards
    Multiple choices; add your own thoughts; pre-send to arrive on the day; other options.
  • Mother’s Day - Wikipedia
    ‘Establishment of holiday; Dates around the world; International history and tradition; References; External links’.
  • Updated ! Mother’s Day in Australia
    ‘Is Mother’s Day a Public Holiday ?; What Do People Do ?; Background; Symbols; About Mother’s Day in other countries; Dates from 2017-2027’.
  • Updated ! Mother’s Day [Lower Primary] - FTfs
    ‘The following information about Mother’s Day can be found below : Mothers throughout history; How did Mother’s Day begin ?; Mother’s Day around the world; Mother’s Day fast facts; References. A printable PDF of the information on this page is available in the right-hand column’.

GENERAL INFORMATION

  • 365 Special Days of the Year
    The Fact Site. ‘Need a reason to celebrate ? What about 365 reasons to celebrate ? Here we have a strange reason to celebrate every day of the year, all the way from January 1st [Z-Day] to 31 December [Make up Your Mind Day]’ American, but with an interesting touch.
  • Book Lovers Day
    9th August. ‘In order to truly appreciate Book Lovers Day, one must only find a story and read it. The individual genre of your reading is not the big piece of this, just that you do read is’.
  • New ! Celebrations Around the World for Kids Calendar [2023]
    ‘Use this free, printable Celebrations Around the World Calendar 2023 as a resource to learn more about holidays and celebrations of countries and cultures from all over the world. Great for schools, preschools and community groups’.
  • Updated ! Days Of The Year
    Provides information about special days which occur on the selected date [initially set at day 1 of 2023], plus the special months in which it occurs. Go forward or backward by days, find what special days and months cover your birthday and more.
  • Earth Calendar
    ‘A daybook of holidays and celebrations around the world. For this web site, a “holiday” is any day that recognises a cultural event’. Find by today or by date, country or religion.
  • Updated ! History of Holidays
    ‘Find details on history and traditions, including the origins of all popular events, festivals and holidays celebrated around the world. Just scroll down and click on the event of your choice. You will also find the events in text links just after the images icons’.
  • Holidays and Observances Around the World
    ‘Public holidays and other special days in 200+ countries. Carefully researched and constantly updated’.
  • January - Special Days of the Year
    The Fact Site. ‘If you want to find out what events happened on each day in history in January, then click the link on the dates’. Access other months from the link[s] at the bottom of the page.
  • List of Holidays by Country
    ‘Below are lists of public holidays by country or region [countries range from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe]. Current countries; Supranational [e.g. European Union]; Former countries; External links; References’. Wikipedia.
  • List of minor secular observances
    ‘Days [listed in months - Date, Name, Established by]; Days that vary by location; Weeks - international, national, regional; Months; Years; Decades; Links; more’. Wikipedia.
  • New ! New Year’s Eve Traditions from around the World
    ‘Looking for a possible Interactive Notebook Activity to use with kids just before the holidays ?’ If so, this might just be the thing to help you develop something.
  • Safer Internet Day 2023
    eSafety Commissioner. ‘Safer Internet Day is a global event that brings together communities, families, schools and organisations from more than 200 countries to help create safer online spaces. This worldwide initiative is celebrating 20 years in 2023, making it a great time to reflect as well as look forward’. There are a wide range of resources available for staff and students from the eSafety Education pages. You can also find out what happens in many other countries via the Safer Internet Day in your country link.
  • Special Days and Occasions to Celebrate Each Year
    ‘Every month is full of days and weeks to observe and celebrate. Many of those days, like Halloween and Mother’s Day, are quite well known while others are not. Have you ever heard of Backwards Day ? Or Look for Circles Day ? These special days can help pique your kids’ interests and stimulate their minds’.
  • Today IS a Holiday ! Check it here
    What Holiday is Today ? and also What Holiday is Tomorrow ? [opens to these]. Also : By month [menu on the left]; By Country; Popular; International; Weird [e.g. National Drinking Straw Day, National Walk Around Things Day]; and Upcoming Holidays’. Many have links to further information.
  • Updated ! Worldwide Public Holidays by Country
    Select the country of your choice, then use the Upcoming button to select the current or future year. You can also use their Worldwide Public Holidays by Date page. ‘Use the links to view the worldwide public holidays for today, tomorrow, this week, next week, or one of the coming months, using the list’ found by clicking on the Select a Time Period button. You can also use their Worldwide Global Holidays and Observances Portal [currently out to 2032] or Worldwide Public Holidays by Continent and World Organisation [currently out to 2032].

HALLOWEEN

  • Updated ! Halloween
    Britannica. ‘Top Questions - What is Halloween ?, When is Halloween ?, Where did Halloween come from ? and How is Halloween celebrated ?’. There is also a summarised presentation of additional information.
  • New ! Halloween [Time and Date]
    ‘Halloween originated from the ancient Celtic festival known as “Samhain”, which marked the start of winter and the start of the new year. It was believed that the spirits of the dead could return to the Earth around that time. This date later became known as All Hallows’ Eve during early Christian times and was a time to pray for the dead and honour the saints’. Also covers Celebrating Halloween, Public Life, Symbols and information on Halloween in countries from Australia to Romania.
  • Halloween [Wikipedia]
    ‘Etymology; History; Symbols; trick or treating and guising; Costumes; Games and other activities; Haunted attractions; Food; Christian religious observances; Analogous celebrations and perspectives; Around the world; References, Further Reading; Links’.
  • How Halloween Works
    ‘If you’ve ever wondered where all those peculiar Halloween practices come from, or you can't figure out why Halloween is such a hot topic with a lot of people, then this article will get you ready for the next October 31. We’ll look at both the Celtic and Christian origins of Halloween, examine all the favourite Halloween traditions and sort out a little bit of the Halloween controversy’.
  • Updated ! Welcome to Halloween on the Net
    ‘We’ve got Dancing Skeletons, Halloween stories, Halloween Costumes, a celebration of Mexico’s “Days of the Dead”, some ghosts, goblins and “jack-o-lanterns”, videos to “go”, holiday pictures for the kids to print and colour and some tasty Halloween recipes to make and enjoy’.
  • New ! What Is Halloween and Why do we Celebrate it ?
    ‘If you were able to time-travel back and observe the first Halloween, you probably wouldn’t even recognise it. So before you start a list of Halloween costume ideas, plan your Halloween party games, put up your DIY Halloween decorations or brush up on your Halloween trivia, read on for the true Halloween origin story’.

OTHER SPECIAL DAYS

  • Boxing Day - Its Origins
    ‘The holiday’s roots can be traced to Britain, where Boxing Day is also known as St. Stephen’s Day. Reduced to the simplest essence, its origins are found in a long-ago practice of giving cash or durable goods to those of the lower classes’. Another site provides A brief history of Boxing Day while for those who prefer a visual presentation, check out Origins of Boxing Day.
  • Labour Day
    ‘International Workers’ Day; Labour Day in a number of countries [includes dates when these are held]; References; Links’. Wikipedia.
  • May Day
    ‘May Day is a European festival of ancient origins marking the beginning of summer, usually celebrated on 1 May, around halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice’. It is also known as a celebration of International Workers’ Day in many countries. See its history. Wikipedia. For an Australian understanding and a history of Labour Day/May Day/Eight Hour Day, visit this site.
  • New !On This Day in History - Historic Events & Notable People
    ‘Events in History; Famous Birthdays; Weddings in History; Famous Deaths’. Multiple search options.
  • Thanksgiving Day
    ‘Introduction and Quick Facts; Fast facts; Media [videos and images]; Additional Information’ covering origins to the current day. Britannica Encyclopaedia.
  • New ! Today in History
    ‘What happened today; Famous birthdays; more events for this date; This week in History’ and much more..

RELIGIOUS DAYS

SAINT PATRICK’S DAY

  • 30 Amazing Facts About St. Patrick’s Day
    ‘St Patrick’s Day is celebrated each year on 17th March. The day is the observation of the death of St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. With these 30 St Patrick’s Day facts, let’s uncover more about this great festival which is celebrated all over the world’.
  • Updated ! St. Patrick’s Day
    ‘St Patrick’s Day is a global celebration of Irish culture on or around March 17. It particularly remembers St Patrick, one of Ireland’ s patron saints, who ministered Christianity in Ireland during the fifth century’. There is also a link to St Patrick’s Day celebration in Australia [and several other countries].
  • St Patrick’s Day [StPatricksDay.com]
    ‘Saint Patrick, History & Works of St. Patrick [18 sections from 50 Facts to Patrick’s Cross]’.
  • Updated ! Saint Patrick’s Day [Wikipedia]
    ‘Irish : Lá Fhéile Pádraig, literal translation - ‘the Day of the Festival of Patrick’, Saint Patrick, Celebration and Traditions, Celebrations by region [including Australia], Criticism, Sports Events, References and Other Links’.
  • New ! The Real History of St Patrick’s Day
    ‘Who was St. Patrick ?, Separating Fact from Fiction, Why the holiday, and when did it start ?, Why does everyone wear green ?, also Why all the drinking ?’ and more.

SOLSTICES & EQUINOXES

UNUSUAL SPECIAL DAYS

  • The majority of the Special Days we have included have long histories and have become embedded in our everyday lives. As well as these, there are some days which might be considered “different”. Several are included below. Check them out and see what we mean !
  • Curious Events Day
    ‘While the origins of this curious holiday are unknown, we suspect the creators of this day wanted people to stop worrying about the small things in life and focus their attention on all the inexplicable, baffling and peculiar mysteries of the world’ [e.g. crop circles, where do all those socks disappear to after doing laundry, sightings of the Yeti and the Loch Ness monster, … ]. A second page about this is found here.
  • Updated ! Día de los Muertos [Day of the Dead]
    ‘Día de los Muertos, or Day of the Dead, is a celebration of life and death. While the holiday originated in Mexico, it is celebrated all over Latin America with colourful calaveras [skulls] and calacas [skeletons]. Learn how the Day of the Dead started and the traditions that make it unique. It is celebrated on All Saints Day’.
  • Friday the 13th
    Not only the name of a horror movie but a special day which can appear multiple times in some years. Interesting historical information. You also find out what the word friggatriskaidekaphobia means.
  • New ! Fun Holidays - Funny, Random & Weird Holidays
    These are listed for most days of the year. They are listed under each month - then date/weekday/Holiday Name. Click on the Holiday Name to find more information. Some days have more than one Funny or Weird Holiday to celebrate. Be sure to check the special title for each celebration [e.g. Don’t Cry Over Spilled Milk Day].
  • New ! Special Days and Occasions to Celebrate All Year
    ‘Every month is full of days and weeks to observe and celebrate. Have you ever heard of Backwards Day ? Or Look for Circles Day ? These special days can help pique your kids’ interests and stimulate their minds’. Be sure to use the links to other special days in the comments for each month. These will give you access to a huge number of other days to find out about.
  • Uncommon Instrument Awareness Day
    ‘This day is a reminder to music lovers that there are many special and uncommon instruments just waiting to be discovered’. If you want to, you could consider learning to play a theremin, hydraulophone, citole or gameleste.

VALENTINE’S DAY

“WORLD” DAYS

  • New ! Global Observances [2023]
    ‘This page contains a calendar of all 2023 observances instituted by the United Nations and its agencies and recognised in countries across the world. In most cases, these dates are set to the same date each year. Therefore only the day of the week on which they fall changes’.
  • International Days & Weeks [United Nations]
    ‘These are the international days and weeks currently observed by the United Nations. The United Nations designates specific days, weeks, years and decades as occasions to mark particular events or topics in order to promote, through awareness and action, the objectives of the Organisation’. Listed in calendar format by months of the year. Another page in a list format is found here and provides a List of International Days and Weeks listed in months. A similar, though briefer, page with UNESCO International Days is found here.
  • International Day of Education
    United Nations. ‘The right to education is enshrined in article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration calls for free and compulsory elementary education. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 1989, goes further to stipulate that countries shall make higher education accessible to all’.
  • International Women’s Day
    Backed by the United Nations, a special day for at least half the world’s population.
  • New ! WHO Global Health Days and Campaigns
    ‘There are many world days observed throughout the year related to specific health issues or conditions – from Alzheimer’s to zoonoses [an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans]. However, WHO focuses particular attention on the 9 days and 2 weeks that WHO Member States have mandated as “official” global public health days’. They have also listed further days toward the bottom of the home page.
  • World Children’s Day
    United Nations. ‘World Children’s Day was first established in 1954 as Universal Children’s Day and is celebrated on 20 November each year to promote international togetherness, awareness among children worldwide and improving children’s welfare’.
  • World Environment Day
    Established by the UN and celebrated on June 5 each year.
  • World Health Day
    Upcoming World Health Day; Previous World Health Day pages. A day to celebrate health and help improve health around the world. A second source of information is found here.
  • Updated ! World Refugee Day
    ‘On World Refugee Day, let’s not forget that some day in the future any one of us could be knocking at a stranger’s door hoping to find a safe and friendly shelter’. Celebrated on June 20 each year.
  • Updated ! World Teachers’ Day
    ‘Held annually on 5 October since 1994. World Teachers’ Day is co-convened in partnership with UNICEF, the International Labour Organisation and Education International’.

Top of Page

× Calendar Competitions Conferences Curriculum Education Resources Site Information Special Pages Teachers Tertiary Updates & Changes